Skip to main content. Bringing Engineering to Life. Soil is the thin skin covering the land; clean water is becoming more valuable every day. Find out how engineers help conserve these two essential resources as you study the interactions between soils, plants, and water that influence the way these resources are used in planning irrigation systems, tillage and cultivation practices, conservation buffers, and animal production facilities. Apply engineering and design skills to improve water quality and minimize pollution from nonpoint sources.

Students can develop irrigation and drainage systems as well as methods to control the pollution and erosion of streams, rivers, and lakes.

Department of Earth Sciences

They also learn to use biological systems as cleaning systems, namely bio-filters and constructed wetlands for the purification of air and water. There are many applications for this career field, and if you want to play a role in improving and protecting the agricultural environment, and get some hands-on experiences, this is the field of study for you!

Recommended Classes:. Soil and Water Resources Engineering Introduction to soil and water resources and the engineering processes used to analyze watersheds. Soil water relations, evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, erosion, flow in natural waterways and through reservoirs, wetland and groundwater hydrology, and water quality. Geographic information system utilized to develop maps and analyze watershed characteristics. A selected watershed is investigated.

Groundwater Engineering Application of engineering principles to the movement of groundwater. Analysis and design of wells, well fields, and artificial recharge. Analysis of pollutant movement. Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Engineering Identification, characterization, and assessment of nonpoint source pollutants; transport mechanisms and remediation technologies; design methodologies and case studies.

Animal Waste Management Characterization of wastes from animal production. Specification and design of collection, transport, storage, treatment, and land application systems. Air and water pollution, regulatory and management aspects. Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering Analytical and design consideration of evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and water movement as related to irrigation and drainage systems; analysis and design of components of irrigation and drainage systems including water supplies, pumping plants, sprinkler systems, and center pivots.

Emphasis Areas Machine Design Engineering Invent, design, or improve the machines used by agriculture, heavy construction, industry, and households. Soil and Water Resources Engineering Develop irrigation systems, methods to control erosion, and practices for pollution prevention.

Test Engineering Evaluate the functional performance of machines and equipment through study of test procedure standards, measurements, and data acquisition. Follow Agricultural Engineering.

Upcoming Events. Full Month View Submit an Event.Soil and Water Conservation within the Watershed Management approach. Soil and water conservation are those activities at the local level which maintain or enhance the productive capacity of the land including soil, water and vegetation in areas prone to degradation through. These activities are to be selected and implemented according to the respective local conditions; i.

Soil and water conservation is an integral part of Watershed Management. Although Watershed Management was formerly considered to be nearly synonymous with soil and water conservation, it goes far beyond it today, comprising a variety of further activities that attempt to improve the living conditions of the people living within the respective watershed e.

Introducing soil and water conservation in the Gina River catchment may further the sustainable utilisation of natural resources for the benefit of local people as the overall goal of Watershed Management. Its success will depend on the participation of local people with their traditional knowledge.

soil and water conservation lecture notes pdf

After the detailed analyses of the watershed they will together select, implement and carry out the soil and water conservation measures suitable for the natural and human conditions of the Gina River catchment.

Some economic, institutional and political aspects have to be considered as well. What participation means and why it is essential in Watershed Management you can learn now. Springe direkt zu Inhalt.

Introduction to Soil and Water Conservation. Soil and water conservation are those activities at the local level which maintain or enhance the productive capacity of the land including soil, water and vegetation in areas prone to degradation through prevention or reduction of soil erosion, compaction, salinity; conservation or drainage of water and maintenance or improvement of soil fertility WOCAT Soil erosion is a natural phenomenon by which soil is removed from rocks.

Accelerated erosion due to misuse of resources of land, water and soil is today one of the most difficult and pressing problems before man. Both engineering and biological methods have been used to check the soil erosion but it is still without a plausible check.

Vast tracts of fertile land are rendered useless on account of industrialisation and development. In India, we are aware of advancing deserts of Rajasthan and erosional losses, floods etc.

The problem has received the attention of forest ecologists, soil scientists and engineers only recently. It is practiced in the hilly regions or on the slopes. In such areas the ram water is absorbed in very little amount because of its quick downward movement on the slopes.

If these sloppy areas are ploughed up and down the slope, the heavy rainfall may cause gully development.

soil and water conservation lecture notes pdf

Taking into consideration this defect, the sloppy areas are ploughed and seeded against the slope, i. This process is termed as contour farming. The contours circular or peripheral furrows catch the downwardly moving water until it is absorbed in the soil. The ridges reduce the flow of water. The circular rows of plants across the slopes check the soil erosion.

Thus, contour farming reduces run off, saves more water for crops, reduces soil erosion and increases the yield of crops Fig. There are several diverse opinions as to whether deep ploughing gives good result or shallow ploughing. A number of researches support the view that in dry areas, shallow ploughing gives comparatively good crop yields Shallow ploughing removes the weeds and enables the soil to absorb water.

Deep ploughing of en leads to soil erosion but in the areas where rainfall is sufficiently high, deep ploughing upto cm deep is effective in removing weeds and increasing crops yields.

If the land is left uncultivated and sheep, goats and other cattle are allowed to graze and sit over it for some time, the soil becomes fertile. Though this practice is useful yet it is not possible in the countries like India where exists severe problem of cereals because of thick human population.

The soil loses its fertility even after the use of fertilizers and ultimately erosion sets in. Rotation of crops is an important method for checking erosion and maintaining productivity of soil.Soil and water conservation engineering.

Download PDF. Recommend Documents. Soil erosion and conservation. An analysis of the joint adoption of water conservation and soil conservation in Central Chile. Ecological engineering and nature conservation. Conservation tillage and biochar improve soil water content and moderate soil temperature in a tropical Acrisol.

Conservation laws for a class of soil water equations. Soil conservation and social stability. Schwab, D. Fangmeier, W. Elliot and R. Frevert, Wiley and Sons, Inc. Looking at an 'old', new book is always a gratifying experience. This one provides the reader with a well-written and thoroughly edited book as well as an updated one.

This edition is the fourth of this book. Its content has been thoroughly checked, revised and brought up to date. In the previous editions, engineering approaches to soil and water conservation formed the skeleton and its content. In this edition, the text addresses the interactions and impact which soil and water conservation methods and practices have on soil, water and air quality and on the entire environment.

The major purpose of this book, as was the case with its previous editions, is to provide a basic textbook for agricultural engineers, soil scientists and other professionals interested in soil and water conservation.

The book includes twenty-one chapters, nine appendices and an index, a list of abbreviations, signs, symbols and Imperial to SI units conversion tables. Each chapter is well-illustrated, includes several worked examples and an updated bibliography.

The first two chapters cover precipitations and conservation-environment interrelations in general and emphasize their implications on small and large area scales. Problems directly connected with hydrology, namely infiltration, evaporation and transpiration Chapter 3runoff and surface flow Chapter 4 are well-explained in details and illustrations.

soil and water conservation lecture notes pdf

In the following chapters the problems of water and wind erosion Chapters 5 and 6 are dealt with and control practices are discussed. Conservation measures, such as tending waterways Chapter 7 and terracing Chapter 8and structures especially constructed for conservation, such as earthworks, dams and flood control, are dealt with Chapters 9 through Land forming, surface drainage and other methods for draining agricultural land and large areas are discussed at length Chapters 12 through In Chapters 16 through 21, pumping, quality of water for irrigation, water supply, principles and method of irrigation are discussed in a very rigorous, technical language and the illustrations and examples are most enlightening to the reader.

The appendices include compiled equations for determining runoff, flow in pipes, conduits and channels, drain design, conversion constants, generally useful formulae and design of filters.Watershed development activity was taken up in the country prior to independence in the state of Maharashtra then Bombay state as a scarcity relief work during drought years in which contour binding programme for conservation of moisture and control of soil erosion was mostly undertaken, After independence, during the second five-year plan, soil conservation research, demonstration and training centers were established in different agroecological zones.

A watershed is a geo-hydrological unit, which drains into common point. The watershed approach is a project based ridge to valley approach for in situ soil and water conservation, forestation etc. Unit of development will be a watershed area of about hectares each in watershed development projects. However, the actual area of a project may vary keeping in view the geographical location, the size of village etc. The Watershed Development Programme is the basic need for integrated development and management of the land and water resources which provide life support for rural communities.

Thus the prospects for agriculture in the dry land areas are severely constrained by the specific feature of their natural resource endowments and the changed context. In a situation of low pressure on resources, viability was possible through traditional land cultivation practices.

Watershed Development Programme ensures supply of water to every field, removes hunger and poverty from poor areas, provide green cover over denuded areas, bring in more rains and improve the environment. Watershed Development Programme is also described as a programme that holds the key to solve problems of employment, economy, ecology, export and equity.

The approved plan shall be the basis for release of funds, monitoring, review, evaluation etc. During the Sixth Five-year Plan the department of Agriculture and cooperation launched a pilot project for propagation of water conservation and harvesting in rainfed areas in 19 watersheds located in 15 states.

The main objectives were water harvesting and water conservation. Besides, the Ministry of Rural Development selected 23 watersheds in drought prone areas for soil and water conservation. These projects showed the potentials of vegetative conservation measures to support biomass production. Integrated Wasteland Development Programme IWDPa centrally sponsored programme, has been under implementation sinceand was transferred to the erstwhile department of Wasteland Development now Department of Land Resources along with the National Wasteland Development Board in July,From 1st Aprilthe programme is being implemented through watershed approach under the common guidelines for Watershed Development.

The development of wastelands and degraded lands under the programme is expected to promote the generation of employment in the rural areas besides enhancing the participation of people at all stages leading to sustainable development ofland and equitable sharing of the benefits. As per old guidelines of Employment Assurance Scheme EAS50 Per cent of the funds released under Drought prone Area programme and Desert Development Programme and upto 40 Per cent of the funds released under Employment Assurance programme were supposed to be spent on watershed development projects and other related activities.

Many Stats following it and a certain portion of the funds was spent on watershed development projects. These states have, in the meanwhile, created a liability for completion of watershed development projects under Employment Assurance. The total area taken up under Employment Assurance prior to Soil Resources and Conservation. Soil is a fundamental resource required for all agriculture. It is nonrenewable on a human time scale. We have to use it in a sustainable fashion if we are not to negatively impact our ability to grow food.

Inappropriate use of soil also leads to other environmental problems, including air pollution, water pollution, and flooding. Controlling soil erosion helps control many of these other problems. Soils: Structure and Types. Soil is a complex mixture of regolith weathered rockhumus organic materialair, water, and living organisms.

It takes natural processes thousands of years to make and is, therefore a nonrenewable resource. Soil composition and characteristics change with depth.

Divided into layers or horizons. A typical or average soil profile contains from the top down :. O Horizon - Leaf litter; decomposing organic material. A Horizon - Topsoil; organic rich; controls fertility. It is usually full of small, burrowing organisms. They help break down complex organic molecules to simpler forms, which are then taken up by plants through their roots.

This horizon also needs to hold water effectively. Color depends on the exact mix of humus dark and regolith light. This horizon controls the flow of nutrients to plants and is, therefore, critical in determining the fertility ability to support plant growth of the soil. B Horizon - Less organics, more regolith. Compounds leached from A Horizon zone of leaching often deposited here zone of accumulation to form a hard caliche deposit.

Not all horizons are always there or fully developed. Many different types of soils are recognized, depending on local climatic environments and parent rock type. Most agriculturally productive types are grassland and deciduous forest soils. Best type is a loama mix of clay, sand, silt, and humus. Loam has a good combination of nutrients, water holding and infiltration capacity, oxygen, and workability. Soil Erosion and Loss. Soil erosion is the loss of soil, particularly the O and A horizons, due to the action of the wind or water.

May be caused or increased by various human activities. Most natural systems have a balance between rate of soil loss and rate of production. Many human activities enhance or cause soil erosion, including farming, logging, construction, overgrazing, off-road vehicles, and slash-and-burn agriculture.

Leave soil bare and unprotected by vegetation and its roots. Soil particles removed by running water most effective and wind. Water erosion occurs as sheet erosion wide surface flowrill erosion narrow rivuletsand gully erosion wider and deeper ditches. Process tends to progress from former to latter over time with increasing amounts of soil being removed.

Loss of eroded particles makes remaining soil less fertile, clogs lakes and streams, pollutes these bodies of water, causes eutrophicationand increases flooding. Global and U. Soil Loss. Globally, losing soil in agricultural areas at times the rate it is being made.

Water Conservation and Management Strategies

Each year, we have to feed approximately 90 million more people with about 30 billion tons less soil.These lecture notes are the original material of Professor Charles Ladd, who taught the class every year from untilrefining the notes each year. Starting in the spring ofthe class was taught every other year by Professor Andrew Whittle and Dr.

Lucy Jen. They have added their own materials and methods to teaching the class, but these lecture notes remain the foundation of the teaching materials.

In the table below, the topics column lists the subject of each lecture session, and the lecture notes link to that session's handout.

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Made for sharing. Download files for later. Send to friends and colleagues. Modify, remix, and reuse just remember to cite OCW as the source. Lecture Notes. Course Home Syllabus Calendar Readings Lecture Notes Download Course Materials These lecture notes are the original material of Professor Charles Ladd, who taught the class every year from untilrefining the notes each year.

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